Originally written for Dagobert’s Revenge Magazine, Copyright 2000
Every culture has a myth about the sacred world mountain, such as Mount Meru in the East, or Mount Olympus in the west, where the peaks (often twin peaks) reach to the heavens. It is symbolically placed in the “center of the Earth,” the world axis, marker of the celestial pole about which the world turns. It is also Paradise, where the gods live in immortality. And they live not just on the mountain, but in its caverns, which are said to reach down into the very depths of Hell. The mountain is often volcanic as well, according to the stories, and the mountain is usually surrounded by a body of water, sometimes with four sacred rivers issuing from its peak. This makes the whole scene a perfect union of the four elements: water (the sea and rivers), fire (the volcanic material within), earth (the mountain itself), and air (the lofty summit of the peak, reaching into the heavens). This mountain is universally remembered as having been a refuge for both gods and men during the Deluge, which is another myth common to all cultures. According to some versions, the mountain was so high that the floodwaters could not submerge it, and those who occupied it (the gods) remained safe. In other versions, such as the Judeo-Christian, it is this mountain which is the first dry land arrived at by the hero of the Flood story, the Noah figure, the pilot of the Ark. In fact, the Ark in these myths is most often occupied by a divine couple, such as Isis and Osiris. In the Greek myth these two were called Deucalion and Pyrrha.
Pyrrha’s name is related to the root word for fire: “pyr.” In fact, both Deucalion and Pyrra are directly related to Prometheus, who first brought fire to Earth. Pyrrha is said to have been named so because of her “fire-red” hair. Deucalion foresaw the Flood and built an ark, which eventually washed up on the peak of Mount Parnassus, the highest peak in the world, and the only bit of land not covered by water. When the waters subsided, they repopulated the planet by magically creating people out of stones, which were cryptically referred to as “the bones of our mother,” (i.e., “Mother Earth”). This race of men was called “the Stone People.” They had exceptional talents and strong physical constitutions, and rebuilt civilization up from the mud and slush of the Deluge.
Pyrrha would appear to be another version of the goddess archetype most common to all cultures: the goddess of love, Venus, whose myth can be found in Isis of the Egyptians, Ishtar of the Babylonians, Astarte of the Canaanites, Aphrodite of the Greeks, Sybil of the Europeans, and many more. In several cultures she is said to inhabit a magic mountain (obviously based on the polar world mountain). This is the well-known “Venusberg” tale upon which Richard Wagner’s Tannhauser is based. Here she lived with her attendant gnomes and fairies, who occupied the numerous caverns and underground rivers that honeycombed the inside of the mountain. A book called Curious Myths of the Middle Ages by Sabine Baring-Gould, it is described as having, “its own mirror-world within, where trees and vaults grow, rivers run, and stars shine out from the hidden vaults of the roof,” much like a Masonic lodge is built “under the vault of Heaven,” with an artificial starry ceiling. Venus is commonly known as the consort of Mars, but her principal consort was Vulcan, god of fire, and patron deity of metallurgy, which he is said to have invented.(2) However, the preferred habit of the mountain’s mistress was to enchant some hapless young man into her abode and hold him there under a spell of sexual magnetism, sometimes for years at a time, the immortal goddess wasting the poor man’s life away in orgiastic debauchery. She is said to still be buried there today, lying in her tomb in a deathless sleep, from which she can only be raised by the embrace of a new young man. Thus arose the tale of “Sleeping Beauty,” a myth referred to repeatedly in the evocative poem published by the Priory of Sion called Le Serpent Rouge, a poem that also makes repeated references to the flood, and to the area of Rennes-le-Chateau in the south of France. This is the vicinity of the Pyrenees mountains, and the Pyrenees were named after the goddess said to be buried within that mountain — “Pyrene,” who, like the similarly-named Pyrrha, was the consort of another famous ark navigator, Hercules. In fact, the myths of Pyrrha and Pyrene would appear to be different manifestations of the same story. This notion is tantalizing to consider when you take note of the fact that the royal family which the Pyrenees area is most famous for producing is that of the Merovingians, who are the central subject of this magazine, and who were known for their magical fire-red hair.
The woman upon whom all these goddesses were based was a real historical personage, Semiramis, queen of ancient Babylon, whose husband King Nimrod, built the city of Babylon and its famous “Tower of Babel” (3), as well as a number of other cities within his mighty empire, which appears to have spanned the globe. Nimrod, as I have stated previously, appears to have certain characteristics in common with the biblical figure of Cain, and with the sea-gods known throughout various cultures as “Dagon,” “Oannes,” “Enki,” etc. This figure can even be seen in the mythical ancestors of the Merovingian kings, the sea monster they called “the Quinotaur.” Like Venus’ consort Vulcan, Nimrod was said to have invented metallurgy, as well as writing, math, navigation, and masonry, the latter being used to build the magnificent tower for which he is most famous. His wife, like Venus, was a love goddess, nicknamed the “Mother of Harlots,” and she acted as the Headmistress of the temple prostitutes, who performed sacred sexual magic in the tower, which was built to represent the sacred world mountain. This sex rite, still practiced by secret societies and occultists today, was known as “pyr,” magic fire, and was employed as a symbolic union of the elements of fire and water — male and female energies. This rite of sexual alchemy, which was also ceremonially performed by Semiramis and Nimrod themselves, is secretly referred to by occultists with the Latin phrase: Rex igne redit et coningo gaudet occulto — “The king returns with fire and rejoices in his hidden bride.”
Replicas of the sacred mountain, of which the Tower of Babel was perhaps the first, can be found all over the world, in the pyramids and stepped ziggurats of the ancient world — from China to Cambodia, from Egypt to South America. All were built to embody the union of fire and water. They were either built on an island, or surrounded by a moat, or connected to an elaborate system of fountains, and they usually contained a sacred fire which burned perpetually at the temple’s peak. In fact, the word “pyramid” itself means “fire in the middle.” Often they would have a secret system of tunnels built underneath them, like under the Giza pyramids, or under the temple of Maccu Pichu, to represent the infernal caverns of the legendary “world mountain.” Like the Tower of Babel, they often consisted of seven steps — seven being the number of godly perfection — and sometimes each step was painted with one of the seven colors of the rainbow, forming a “rainbow bridge” to Heaven — which was indeed the main function of the temple. In fact, the Sumerian word for ziggurat is “duranki,” which means “the binding of Heaven and Earth,” and the word “Babylon” means “gateway of the gods.” Furthermore, in the Pyr ritual which was performed in a temple’s inner sanctum, the priestess was referred to, in Latin, as “Ianua Coeli” (“Gateway to Heaven”), proving again that the ritual which took place inside the temple represented the same concepts as the temple itself.(4)
According to the biblical narrative, the Tower of Babel was built relatively soon after the Flood, when all of the people who remained were essentially of one stock, and all of one culture. The Tower of Babel may have been the first thing built by the post-diluvian civilization that had any structural significance to it. The Bible makes it sound as though the people who built it were just arrogantly attempting to create a replica of the holy mountain on which the gods lived, as part of some narcissistic, self-serving effort to be more god-like. But subtle details in a passage from Genesis: 11, make it clear what the original purpose was. Genesis 11:4 states: “And they said, “Go to, let us build a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.”
The “universal language” that is undoubtedly referred to in the Tower of Babel story is Sumerian, in which can be found the roots of many, if not most of the words in the unfathomable multitudes of languages used on Earth today. One might imagine that if you could put all of the pieces together like a jigsaw puzzle, you would find this hidden language in the various fragments. But alas, the true pronunciation and meaning of the language of Sumer has been lost to the mists of time, along with the people who used that language, for the people who today occupy the landmass that was ancient Mesopotamia are certainly not their direct ancestors. Divine retribution stole from them their most precious possession — posterity. Symbolic similarities can be found in the later Biblical tale of the twelve tribes of Israel, ten of which were “dispersed” and lost to history, again as part of a divine punishment. During the God-imposed captivity of the Israelites in Babylon. According to The Book of Jeremiah, God’s purpose for the punishment of the Babylonian captivity was to scatter the Israelites across the globe, to cause them to lose their identity, and especially, their language. Even the patriarch of the twelve tribes of Israel, formerly known as Jacob, bears a certain symbolic connection to the figure of Nimrod or Cain, the one who rebelled against God. Experts say that Jacob’s name, in Hebrew, means “usurper,” because he usurped his brother’s birthright, a story element shared with that of Cain and Abel. But there is another detail of Jacob’s story that connects him even further to the figure of Nimrod. That is his temple of Bethel.
As the story goes, God sent Jacob to a place called “Luz” (Light), “in the land of Canaan.” This was the same spot where his ancestor, Abraham had once built “an altar to the Lord,” and where, according to certain Jewish traditions, he had attempted to sacrifice his son Isaac, being located on Mount Moriah. Here Jacob found the altar which his forefather had built out of twelve stones, and laid them out on the ground, saying: “‘If, not, these twelve stones will unite into a single one, then I shall know for a certainty that I am destined to become a father of the twelve tribes.’ At this time, the twelve stones joined themselves together and made one, which he put under his head, and at once it became soft and downy like a pillow.”(5) Overcome with sleep, Jacob had a wondrous dream, in which he witnessed, “a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven: and behold, the angels of God ascending and descending on it.” (Genesis 28:12.) When Jacob awoke, he said to himself: “Surely the Lord is in this place, and I knew it not.” (Genesis 28:16.) He then became afraid and exclaimed, “How dreadful is this place! This is none other but the House of God, and this is a gate of Heaven.” (Genesis 28:17.) He then took the stone which he had used for a pillow, and set it up as a pillar, consecrating it with oil which magically poured down from Heaven, and resolved to use it as a cornerstone for a temple of God, which he would build upon that very spot. Thereafter he called the place “Bethel.”
Now consider the “ladder to Heaven” which he witnessed. As Freemasonic expert and author Albert Pike writes in Morals and Dogma, “The word translated â€˜ladder’ is â€˜salem’, from â€˜salal’, raised, elevated, reared up, piled into a heap… a pyramid with seven stages.” Other biblical scholars share in this consensus: the “ladder to Heaven” which Jacob saw in his dream was a seven-staged ziggurat reaching to Heaven — just like Nimrod’s Tower of Babel! Even the word “Bethel” is phonetically similar to “Babel.” But there is more. The word “Beth-El,” or “Beith-El” has been translated from the Hebrew as meaning “house of God,” and also “gateway to Heaven” — exactly what Jacob said it was. But according to author Rene Guenon in his book Rene Guenon, this word is also related to “betyle,” which is, “a stone believed to be the dwelling-place of the deity… Thus this stone must be the true “divine habitation’, the seat of the Shekinah.” This concept is further elaborated on in his colleague Julius Evola’s The Mystery of the Grail, where he writes, “lapis betillis, or betillus… may be a reference to baitulos, the stone fallen from the sky according to Greek mythology.” This “stone that fell from Heaven” is also known as the Grail stone, a representation of Lucifer or Satan, and the bloodline of his descendants through Cain. This is the “Grail family,” which included the kings of the ancient world, the biblical patriarchs, the Merovingian kings in France, and much of the royalty of modern Europe.
Jacob built a temple upon that stone, and if he believed that the spirit of God actually lived inside that stone, then this temple would quite literally be a “house of God.” Furthermore, it is clear that the temple he built represented, as all “world mountain” temples do, the center of the Earth, for we read in The Legends of the Jews, Volume 1 by Louis Ginzberg that after he had set up and anointed the pillar, “God sank this anointed stone into the abyss, to serve as the center of the earth, the same stone, the Eben Shetiyah, that forms the center of the sanctuary, whereof the Ineffable Name is graven…” Therefore, if Jacob built his temple as a replica of the one he had seen in his dream, he would have a seven-stepped ziggurat reaching up to Heaven, with the cornerstone sunk down into the abyss, to the center of the earth — an exact representation of the primordial world-mountain in all details. Perhaps this myth is the source of Judaism’s most pre-eminent symbol, the six-pointed Seal of Solomon, which can be viewed as a representation of this mountain. The upward-pointing triangle represents the mountain’s peak, as well as the element of fire, licking up towards Heaven, and the downward-pointing triangle represents the cavern leading t the center of the Earth, and to the stone, as well as the element of water, issuing from a subterranean source. That the Israelites viewed their God as actually living inside of a holy mountain is clear from his traditional title, “El Shaddai,” the “Lord of the Mountain,” and from the fact that he introduced the Ten Commandments to Moses from inside of a volcano, appearing in the form of a flaming pyre to a man whose name (“Moses”) means “rescued from the water” — symbolic indeed. Of course, there is also that other most well-known habitation of the Lord, Mount Zion, next to which the Jews built another “house” for the Lord, the Temple of Jerusalem.
Despite the very specific dimensions detailed in the Bible regarding how many cubits high and wide it was, we really do not know what the Temple of Jerusalem looked like — only that it was built according to the specifications of the Almighty God himself. However, most experts agree that it was built on the foundation of a much older, megalithic-style temple, obviously to another god. Although we do not know for certain that this previous temple took the form of a ziggurat, it would certainly seem to be implied by the name “Jerusalem,” containing that word “salem” which, according to Albert Pike, means “a seven-stepped pyramid.”(6) The number 7 recurs repeatedly in the story of the Temple of Solomon, which was built in seven years, within the confines of a city that, like Rome, was built upon seven hills. Like Bethel, and other sacred “world mountain” locations throughout the ancient world, Jerusalem was believed to be the literal “center of the earth,” and throughout the middle ages was depicted on maps as being in the exact mathematical center, with all of the other land masses clustered around it evenly. The temple was itself believed to have been built in the direct center of the holy city. And of course, like Bethel, the Temple of Solomon was built upon a sacred foundation stone, “the Rock of Sion,” “the stone which the builders rejected.” Just as the Lord was believed to literally be living inside of the cornerstone at Bethel, God was believed also to literally reside inside the Ark of the Covenant, the Jews’ most famous treasure, for which the Temple was supposedly built in the first place.
The Temple was built with three concentric chambers, and the Ark was placed in the exact center of the Temple’s inner chamber, the “Holy of Holies,” right where we now find the black meteorite known as the “Kaaba,” another “stone that fell from Heaven,” worshipped by Muslims at the Dome of the Rock, which was built over the old Temple mount. And what else was inside the Ark, supposedly? Stone tablets, handed to Moses by God himself, inscribed by God’s own divine finger. The stone at Bethel was said to have words written on it as well, specifically the four-fold “Ineffable Name of God.”(7) Evidence would indicate that the cornerstones of both the Bethel and Jerusalem temples are in fact the same object. And although Bethel and Jerusalem were probably not the same geographical places historically, there is another interesting detail from the Jewish apocrypha that indicates a geographical and symbolic connection: both Mt. Sion and Bethel are said to be “near” a place called “the Cave of Treasures,” in which many Biblical patriarchs and matriarchs are said to be buried. Here, Adam and Eve are said to lie, their bodies undecayed in a perpetual death-like slumber. Eve, it would appear, is another manifestation of the “Sleeping Beauty” goddess archetype. Then the Garden of Eden, it would follow, must have been located atop the sacred world mountain, especially noting the fact that Eden was surrounded by four sacred rivers, just like the world mountain is.
There have actually been a series of “reincarnations” of the Temple of Jerusalem, all of them sacked and ruined by foreign invaders. The Ark was, according to legend, secreted away long before, most probably within the vast caverns underneath the Temple which Solomon had built — another similarity between this temple and ancient ziggurat temples. With the Ark, and its precious cargo, deposited underground, that makes the similarity between Solomon’s Temple and Jacob’s Bethel — in which the cornerstone was sunk down into “the abyss” in the “center of the earth” — complete. Although the famous “Wailing Wall” is the only remnant of the Temple still intact today, the “ruined” Temple of Jerusalem has become a powerful symbol for modern-day Freemasons, who undoubtedly adapted it from their predecessors, the Knights Templar.(8)
Interestingly, there is a symbolic representation of the Temple of Solomon to be found in Scotland’s Rosslyn Chapel, built by a direct heir to the Templar heritage, William Sinclair. It was purposely designed to have direct structural and dimensional similarities to the Temple of Jerusalem, including underground caverns in which treasures are believed to have been secreted. But it was also purposely left unfinished, as a representation of the concept of the “ruined temple.” This concept may just be an archetypal memory of the destruction of the Tower of Babel, a concept that one might suppose is also represented by the missing capstone of the Giza pyramid. This capstone is presented on the Masonic “Great Seal of the United States” on the back of the dollar bill as having been restored or replaced by the “All-Seeing Eye of God.” In a way, the ruined temple represents the Fall of Man, and its restoration, his return to the Garden of Eden. With this is mind, it is noteworthy that Rosslyn Chapel is located in the Scottish city of “Edinburgh,” which literally means “Mount of Eden,” and which is also, believe it or not, built on seven hills.
However, Rosslyn is not the only holy site in Europe where the architects and landscapers have clearly attempted to reflect or symbolically refer to Jerusalem and the Temple of Solomon. The other most noteworthy site is Rennes-le-Chateau, France, which has a landscape that has been purposely concocted to resemble the street layout of the Old City of Jerusalem. On this landscape you will find the Church of St. Mary Magdalene, with the words “This place is terrible. It is the House of God and the Gateway to Heaven” transcribed over the doorway, a deliberate reference to Jacob’s Temple of Bethel. Directly inside that doorway stands the infamous statue of the demon Asmodeus, the legendary builder of Solomon’s Temple, according to Judaic tradition. The demon holds aloft on his shoulders a seashell full of holy water, surmounted by two fiery salamanders, and is then further surmounted by four angels, thus embodying a symbolic union of the four elements, like the ancient ziggurat temples I have written of. This church is profuse with seemingly gratuitous water imagery, like the ziggurats of old were, with their sacred pools and moats. And although there is no sacred pyre or evidence of temple prostitution having taken place there, the patron saint of the church, Mary Magdalene, actually was a temple prostitute, and a worshipper of Astarte, a.k.a. Semiramis — another temple prostitute. And Mary was also, just like Semiramis, married to the king of a holy city â€“ Jesus. In fact, some say that the name “Magdalene” means “companion of the king,” while it may also derive from the Babylonian word “migdol,” which means “tower.” Her first name, “Mary,” is derived from the root word for “water,” “mar.” But another derivative of “Mary” commonly used is “Miriam,” which is found to be contained in “Semiramis,” and which is a proper noun designating the female consort in a sacred sex ritual. Since Mary Magdalene’s companion was known as the “Second Adam,” that must make Mary the “Second Eve.” Also known as the “Bearer of the Grail,” because she carried Christ’s seed, she is depicted in Catholic statuary as holding a vase full of balm, something shared by many other goddesses of the Venus archetype.
Things such as these are undoubtedly the cause for the strange development of the “cult of Mary Magdalene,” in which the saint is worshipped in a veiled form (and Venus in a form veiled further still), taking the shape of “Black Madonnas,” strange idols of the Madonna and child that can be found in Catholic churches throughout the Pyrenees region. It should come as no surprise, then, to learn that there is a long-standing tradition which states that Mary Magdalene is buried, in the region of Southern France surrounding Rennes-le-Chateau, perhaps somewhere amongst the five mountains found there that form a perfect pentagram — the symbol associated with Venus. Or perhaps St. Mary can be found in the local “Cave of Pyrene” in the Pyrenees. Certainly Father Sauniere’s mural in the church at Rennes-le-Chateau depicted her inside of a cave, surrounded by emblems of death — surely an indication of the secret he had learned regarding the location of her remains. And her descendants, the Merovingians, were known for their fire-red hair, just like Pyrrha/Pyrene.
The Sumerian word “pir,” from whence comes “pyre,” and thus, “fire” (9), also has a number of other very interesting derivatives. From it we also get the Sumerian word “par” or “bar,” which means “house” or “temple,” and thus the Egyptian word for “priest-king,” “pharaoh.” The syllable “par” or “per” can be found in a number of other seemingly related words: “Paradise” (the location of the world mountain); “peer” (meaning “nobleman”); and most likely, the words “perfect,” “pure,” and “purge,” from which we get the word “purgatory” — all words related to spiritual cleansing (based on the idea of baptism by fire). This is probably the source of the word “pray” as well. We should also consider the Indian Zoroastrians known as “Parsis,” and the Jewish caste known as the “Pharisees,” as well as the land of “Persia.” This root word “pyr” may even be related to the word “pierce,” from whence “Parcival,” the Grail hero, gets his name, which means “pierce the valley” — as in the valley between the twin peaks of the world mountain. Note also that one of the places where Parcival sought the Grail was in “Chapel Perilous.”
Interestingly, the syllable “per” comes up in Andre Douzet’s recent book, Sauniere’s Model and the Secret of Rennes-le-Chateau, published by Adventures Unlimited Press and “Societe Perillos.” This group is obviously named after the area of Perillos in Southern France where Douzet believes Jesus Christ to be buried. He points out that the coat of arms of the Lords of Perillos depicts three pear fruits, specifically a variety of wild pears known as “Mary Magdalene pears.” More provocative still is the painting which he mentions, found at the church in Arques, not far from the “Col du Parades” (“Hill of Paradise”), where the baby Jesus is depicted in the Garden of Eden being offered a pear by an old woman. Douzet then makes the most amazing statement, writing that, “Because of its agreeably sweetened savour and its abundant juice, this fruit symbolized Venus… also undoubtedly by her round and soft form, it inspired the eroticism symbolizing the woman, the Love.”
What is being indicated here with all of these “per” or “par” words in relation to Southern France, the goddess Venus, and the Holy Grail? Is it possible that the Lady Venus, the female co-pilot of the Ark during the Deluge, is buried in one of the nearby mountains, her grave cryptically referred to by locals as that of Mary Magdalene? Or was there, perhaps, a stepped-pyramid temple to Venus in the area during ancient times, containing the sacred flaming pyre, which has since been destroyed?(10)
A fascinating hint that this possibility exists can be found in the book Le Vrai Langue Celtique, by Abbe Henri Boudet, a friend of Rennes-le-Chateau’s priest, Berenger Sauniere, who was intimately involved with his discovery of the famous “Rennes-le-Chateau parchments,” and who undoubtedly knew the secret of Rennes-le-Chateau. He used this book about the Celtic language to encode clues about that secret, many of which have yet to be deciphered. On page 216, Boudet makes a strange, out of place reference to the word “PYRE” — in uppercase letters. This reference is then connected to another, ill-fitting allusion which Boudet makes to the passage of Genesis 9:18. As luck would have it, this reference is quite relevant to the subject of this article, for it is a reference to the Flood, and to the bloodline of Noah’s descendants. It says: “The sons of Noah who went out from the Ark were Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Ham is the ancestor of the Canaanites.” And the Canaanites, we might infer, were, Boudet believed, the ancestors of the Merovingians, the Grail family. Perhaps this is part of the secret, contained within Southern France for hundreds of years, which Boudet was trying to communicate.
(1) In Sumeria, we have the tale of the goddess Ninurta, who stopped up a flood of waters pouring out of the inside of the Earth by hurling a mountain on top of the exit point. That mountain became, thereafter, the world mountain, and Ninurta changed her name to Ninhursag, “the Lady of the Mountain.” She was also called the “Lady of the Rib,” a symbolic connection to the biblical Eve.
(2) His name is the root of the word “volcano.”
(3) It is interesting to note that, in 1627, a Sicilian witch interrogated by the Inquisition confessed that she had seen Sibyl emerge with her fairy entourage from “a cave in the Tower of Babylon,” and that Sibyl was “King Solomon’s sister.”
(4) Traces of this function performed by the priest and priestess in ancient times can be found in the Latin word for “priest” — “pontifex” — which literally means “builder of bridges” — to Heaven, of course.
(5) From The Legends of the Jews, Volume 1, by Louis Ginzberg.
(6) The Temple of Solomon was based on the Phoenician temple on the island of Tyre. All Phoenician temples, like the Atlantean temple described by Plato, had two pillars that marked the entrance: one made of wood, for the goddess Astarte (Venus), the other made of stone, for the god Baal. The Temple of Solomon also had two pillars, named Jachin and Boaz. And although there was no body of water surrounding the temple, there was something called the “Brazen Sea,” held aloft by twelve stone bulls, three facing each cardinal direction, over which stood the flaming “pyre” of burnt offerings. The temple was supposed to be dedicated to the Jewish god Yahweh alone, but even King Solomon himself erected idols to the Phoenician gods within its inner sanctum, and maintained a harem of temple prostitutes with which he undoubtedly performed sacred sex rituals — just like in the ziggurat temples of old.
(7) This jibes with the legends of the “Grail stone” that “fell from Heaven,” which is inscribed with the names and lineage of all of the members of the “Grail family.” The Rock of Zion is also representative of that same bloodline, for Christ called himself by that title, a statement that is usually interpreted as a reference to his descent from King David. Christ, of course, was born in a city called “Bethlehem” — very similar to “Bethel.”
(8) This group had led the Crusades to recapture Jerusalem for the Holy Roman Empire, and used the Temple Mount itself as their headquarters.
(9) “Fire” may be the source of the name of the Norse Goddess, Freya, that culture’s version of Venus, after whom “Friday” was named.
(10) A relevant fact which should be noted here is that the Pyrenees mountains contain a number of caves, one of which is the previously mentioned “Pyrene’s Grave,” covered with pre-historic paintings of animals, some of which were native only to far-away places like China and South America, indicating that the people who made them were world-wide navigators who had washed up from a foreign shore. These caves, by the way, were all painted during an epoch of pre-history (14,000-10,000 B.C.) known to archeologists as the “Magdalenian Era,” named after the famous “Magdalene Cave” in Dordogne, France.